Leadership, community, and the current crisis at General Seminary



by Andrew Gerns

On Friday, the news broke that most of the faculty at the General Theological Seminary in New York City have decided to refrain from teaching classes, attending official seminary meetings, and attend Chapel services until they are able to sit down and have a conversation with the Board of Trustees.

Despite a follow up letter from the faculty to the students describing in more detail what it going on, there is still some question as to what is going on.

The conflict has nothing to do with pay, hours, job description, benefits, or perks. There is none of the traditional pocket-book labor issues at stake.

This is not a disagreement over the need for change to they way we do theological education or the way we prepare clergy for ministry. So the Wisdom Year (where in students spend their third year in parishes, particularly those that are small, in distressed communities, or who have lacked regular, full-time priestly ministry, doing and learning parish ministry in “a real-world setting”) is not at issue. The faculty have been supportive of the concept both in theory and in substance.

As far as I can tell the real issues have to do with the leadership style of the dean and his tendency to “Lone Ranger” decisions–even correct ones, but also dubious ones–without debate, discussion or buy-in.

In speaking with, or reading things written by, various stakeholders–some who support the action and some who do not– I have learned the following:

The main issue has to do with the relationship between the faculty and Dean & President especially the consequences of his style of leadership. In particular, those who chosen to take part in the job action cite the apparent tendency of the Dean to hear questions as dissent and to assign hostile intent to those who disagree with his approach.

Dunkle makes no secret of the fact that he is a person who does not believe in collaboration but rather that he prefers to be a leader who keeps and articulates the vision with the expectation that the leaders in the middle will use their talents and skills to carry out his central vision.

The line in the faculty statement about “maturity” has to do with the fact that the Dean has told the students that protest is a form of immaturity and that the problem is that the faculty will not do what they must do to accomplish the mission as he sees it.

So the Dean does not like to waste too much time in listening to or compromising with other stake holders. Especially when that dialogue might delay or temper his vision. He wants to dive right in and get on with it.

Related to this is the fact that he has gathered all authority to himself. So he has final say over both curriculum decisions as well as the conduct of worship in the chapel. The problem is that–like many Rectors who find themselves in trouble–he apparently has lost the balance in leadership between direction and influence that is essential to function effectively in an environment where checks and balances exist. In a parish, the Vestry holds the purse-strings. A priest can choose to make that relationship essentially adversarial or essentially collaborative. In a parish, congregants can come and go. A rector can choose to write off those who don’t follow as recalcitrant folks who dislike change, or the rector can choose to work the process knowing that most will come along and some won’t but that the community is working together for change–and this takes time, patience, and finesse.

This comes into play in the Dean’s public discussions about the so-called “Wisdom Year.” For him, “Wisdom” comes from the experience of enduring conflict. He has said that what students need to experience in the Wisdom Year is “being beat up.” While he has publicly and repeatedly apologized for using that image, it reflects a bias that “wisdom comes through struggle.”

Add to that the idea that theological knowledge is secondary to practical skills. He has also publicly told people in public forums that a priest’s education is incomplete unless the cleric learns in the “real” world she or he must be able to “fix the toilet.” His perspective is that unless the cleric learns practical considerations of institutional management, the priest will not be successful.

We in this see two different visions of theological education at odds with each other.

The tension comes when those practical considerations are cut loose from theological reflection. Basic questions about how the parishes that are supposed to benefit the most from the wisdom year–marginal, struggling and moribund congregations in various states of transition–can afford and pay for the seminarians sent to them for a year; of how those students will receive useful supervision, peer support, and theological reflection; and how the congregations will both get necessary sacramental ministry and live with the decisions these students make from year to year have not been effectively answered. In the haste to get this model up and running, fundamental questions of both process and mission are left unanswered.

A third perspective the Dean brings is that it appears that the success of the leader can be measured by the resistance he experiences from the system. From this stand-point, collaboration can be dangerous because it allows the leader to live at the mercy of the anxiety of those threatened by change. Again, I hear in his comments about wisdom coming from “being beat up” and protest arising out of “immaturity” as indicative of a perspective that assumes that when people are fighting back, the leaders must be doing something right.

Lastly, Dean Dunkle believes that the Seminary must align itself to be responsive to the general attitudes and trends of the church at large. To be relevant to the culture, the seminary must dare to jettison some long held traditions. So he has ended the practice of daily morning and evening prayer and daily Eucharist in favor of a schedule of alternate morning prayers and Eucharists over a few days a week. He has removed some of the pews to make for a space for people to socialize after chapel. And he has discouraged the use of words like “Mass” in describing the Chapel Eucharist or “Solemn” in describing a sung liturgy (in favor of the friendlier “festival”) because, in his view, that’s not now the culture at large speaks about the liturgy.

In the process, the focus on worship that was once the hallmark of life at General changed. Because most parishes don’t worship on a daily basis and most don’t have daily Eucharist, and since the student body is more and more dispersed, the pattern of worship has been changed.

But with this decision, the idea that formation happens in community and that the rhythm of daily office and daily Eucharist anchors the common life of the seminary, even if only a minority of the community was present at any given time (because mandatory Chapel went away decades ago), has been eliminated. The idea at the heart of Hoffman’s grand design of the Close was to combine academics with Chapel life in a way to intensely form priests. There is a reason that the buildings include living spaces and classrooms that center on the Chapel.

Now, this is not to say that worship is at the heart of the tensions with the faculty. The pinch comes when decisions about worship that have a significant impact on the fabric of the community are made by mere fiat. That’s a recipe for turmoil.

There appears to be a profound lack of theological reflection in the process of change that the Dean has undertaken, which along with an impatience with relationship-building, that is strangely at odds with the mission of a seminary to form and prepare priests for mission in parish communities.

After a decade or more of financial instability that required the relief of accumulated debt–through the sale of significant chunks of property– and after many false starts at realigning the mission of the seminary, I believe that the Trustees wanted a strong leader, a man of action, who willing to think outside of the proverbial box. It is entirely possible that the Board is completely sold on and committed to the direction and changes that the Dean has in mind.

I believe that the faculty were as anxious as the Trustees were to have in their Dean someone who was willing to take big risks and make bold moves. What no one expected is that this particular leader would not be at home with collaboration but is instead impatient to get going and get the job done.

The Trustees may have been told that they should expect resistance from the faculty and that this might be seen as a sign of success. They may not want to have any dialogue with the faculty because they feel that they must support the Dean and President no matter what. And they may believe that to mediate conflict or to develop processes to bring in key stake holders in the decision-cycle will de-rail the hard choices to come.

The Trustees, I think, must choose what they understand their primary function to be: let the vision and direction flow from the Dean and President or, alternatively, to be the ones who themselves take responsibility for developing a vision and direction for the seminary. Being an elected and appointed body that represents the wider church, alumni, faculty and students, this will by definition call for collaboration.

In my view, it is not the Dean and President who is in charge of developing the mission and direction of the Seminary, but the Board of Trustees and by extension the General Convention who, after all, “owns” the Seminary in a way that is unique to the seminaries of the Episcopal Church.

There is an interesting parallel process to the recent turmoil uptown at the Metropolitan Opera, who barely avoided a devastating lock-out and salvaged their season when the unions representing the choristers, stagehands, and orchestra wrung out of the Board and Peter Gelb, the artistic director, significant input into the artistic choices of the company, the use of resources to put on productions, and financial accountability.

In that instance, the take-it-or-leave-it style of leadership generated a crisis, perhaps in the hope that the management and board could win concessions and cost savings from the workers and artists who put on the productions. Instead, it alienated the people who made the Opera possible and, worst of all, drove away patrons and donors.

What is happening in Chelsea Square is similar in that the leadership is so intent on their goal and so committed to a single over-riding vision, that they appear to have forgotten who it is they serve, who it is that makes the mission happen and who must live with the decisions in the long run.

It is true that the tone of an organization–parish, seminary, opera company, manufacturer–emanates from the leaders. But it is easy to forget that an organization is organic. The effective leader listens to resistance–from within himself, from within the organization and from outside–because of it is usually sending a message. The leader must choose what stance he or she is going to take towards the people being led. This means choosing his or her approach to the necessary and predictable responses to even ordinary change. If one assumes that the people who are not buying into your vision are incompetent or fearful or wrong, or if people who have a different approach are either saboteurs or terrorists, then all the organization will experience is conflict. The measure of success will be “winning” rather than accomplishing the goal.

It is true that if a leader takes the approach of going along to get along and always accommodates unhappy people, then the organization falls into kind of chaos.

But what is strange here is that fight is among people who essentially agree– but who bring to the table concerns or perspectives that seem distracting or irrelevant to the leader.

This is the second time in a year when a seminary of the Episcopal Church has been wracked by internal strife between administration and faculty. Tom Ehrich wrote about his seminary that he hoped that students would learn that this is not the way to handle conflict. In a similar vein, I hope that the current class of students of my alma mater will learn that visionary, risk-taking leadership is required for the church’s future, but that perhaps this is not the way to go about it.

One may disagree with the approach the faculty has taken…to stay away from classes, meetings and chapel until they have a open and honest conversation with the Board…but after two attempts at mediation have failed–combined with the fact that it has only taken twelve months for this level of crisis to unfold–indicates that leadership has failed to build on the opportunities that their new found financial stability has brought them.

Instead of developing a shared vision, building relationships with all the stakeholders, a solution is imposed as a cure all with the promise that it will change the church. Perhaps that’s the problem. We don’t change the Church. The gathering of God’s people, wherein the Holy Spirit dwells and which demonstrates the face of Christ, changes us.

The Rev. Canon Andrew Gerns is the Rector of Trinity Episcopal Church in Easton, Pennsylvania in the Diocese of Bethlehem. He keeps the blog “Fun’n’Games in the Kingdom of God.”

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21 Responses to "Leadership, community, and the current crisis at General Seminary"
  1. "A third perspective the Dean brings is that it appears that the success of the leader can be measured by the resistance he experiences from the system."

    This is the perfect set-up, because it means that he must be the most SUCCESSFUL dean in the world, judging by results.

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  2. I went through a harrowing time with a food coop in which we changed from top-down, no-recourse to collective management. Until that time, there was a pattern of honey-moon/divorce with general managers. This just did not work with the culture of our 'hood. We changed over to collective management, where all staff has to come to board meetings at least once per year and have to understand administrative things and the chief indicators of health in a very competitive market. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats are checked in about regularly now, and the staff appreciates that the board keeps on top of these things as well. It was a difficult transition, but completely necessary. We borrowed a manager from Olympia, which has operated this way for some time, and we also had help from Peoples Coop, in Portland with us, who have also operated this way. Everybody has to be on board with the indicators of health, and issues have to get fleshed out among peers. There are areas on the west coast where this type of operation is pretty well worked out. SEMCO, of Brazil, is a model of a corporation that works on a consensual basis. It is fascinating to figure out how to make this kind of operation work. Once it gets going, it is kind of a relief to everybody, because ways of dealing with conflict are clear.

    [Swirlingtheuniverse: please sign your name when you comment. Editor]

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  3. Seminaries, like other institutions of higher learning, need to have a collaborative relationship between dean/president and the faculty. Without faculty buy-in, change will be defeated. Even where a leader needs to change a campus culture to ensure survival, that leader still needs allies.

    Leading any institution of higher learning means you are herding cats. A faculty's greatest strength (and greatest weakness) is their expertise. To not make use of it is to waste the institution's greatest resource. A good leader knows how to tap that expertise without allowing it to become a shield to reject all change.

    For a seminary, where part of what should go on is spiritual formation, practical knowledge needs to be tempered with a strong spiritual community. To be a truly Episcopal place, intellect also needs to be valued. I don't think we really need to "form" clergy who are taught that strife and conflict is the norm. I've seen clergy with that perspective and they have nearly destroyed the congregations they served. They need to recognize that disagreement and discussion are part of the Episcopal ethos. Those who confuse strife and discord with growth have not learned how to have a healthy disagreement.

    Joan R. Gundersen

    formerly an academic dean

    and a survivor of the schism in Pittsburgh

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  4. Well, after I laughed for a full minute at the delicately nuanced, "most of the faculty at the General Theological Seminary in New York City have decided to refrain from teaching classes . . ., etc." - "Decided to refrain"? They are on strike, for goodness sake! However, I'm grateful for that clear revelation of the author's perspective, right up front, as an alum who is obviously and understandably distressed by what has happened to his beloved seminary and is trying to make sense of it all. Hence, my experience of the abundance of the author's surmises and assumptions and oversimplifications.

    I'm an EDS Alum. 1986. As was mentioned in the article, EDS has also been in acute turmoil for the past year. Faculty there are not "striking," per se, but some faculty are leaving - have left - one, after less than a year after having received tenure.

    The faculty at EDS chose to take their conflict with the leadership style of the P&D and BOT to the public with a series of "Open Letters." Some of the faculty at GTS have chosen this "strike" as their course of action to deal with their conflict with the P&D and BOT. Which raises a question for me about what is being modeled here, by both faculties, concerning conflict resolution in community. Especially in an age of social media and 24/7 News Cycle.

    All that having been said, the author's point about non-collaborative leadership style raises another question for me: Could the leadership style of Jesus with his disciples be described as "collaborative"? Or, for that matter, Peter? Or, Paul? Or James? I'm not condoning one way or the other. I'm simply musing out loud, trying to figure this out along with everyone else.

    Which leads to my final question: TEC has, for the past three years, been studying how to re-vision and re-structure our church, including what seems to some as drastic proposals to reduce the legislative process of General Convention and the membership and representation ratio on the CCABs. Having read their reports and 'open letters', I wonder if "change by committee" is any worse or any better than "non-collaborative" (some might say "decisive") style of leadership.

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  5. Now that we've had this useful description of one side of the story, I would very much like to encourage The Lead to assign a reporter to the story to look at the big picture and ask the larger systemic questions. It would be a great service to the Church. It's fine to have an advocate for one side of the story, but the danger is that it gives the impression of being THE story, when it obviously is only part of it.

    [Leslie - The Lead reached out to the dean and communications office of GTS for comment midday Friday as the story was breaking. We allowed time for a reply. At this writing [Sunday 3PM] we have not received a reply. If we receive a reply, or the dean/trustees/GTS PR issue statements we will cover them. -- eds.]

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  6. Cutting down on the daily office and eucharist sounds like an abandonment of spirituality. Calling the eucharist a "festival" sounds silly.

    Kenneth Leech somewhere says that today, alas, many priests spend more time in the office than doing the daily office! Clergy have become like professionals who have to show what value they give to society. Prayer is seen as a waste of time. It would be better to fix a toilet.

    Leech says Eastern religions have not made this mistake of abandoning spirituality for so-called relevance.

    Gary Paul Gilbert

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  7. Thanks, Andrew, for this post. The letters that were made public previously were fairly opaque as to what was really going on. As for balance, I have to say that if members of the faculty feel the way you describe, it is a problem, even if their opinions are unjustified. I hope and pray that this situation can be resolved quickly and reasonably. (I’m not holding my breath, however.)

    By the way, I did not think that Elizabeth’s speculation on leadership at the dawn of Christianity was relevant or helpful. Jesus did not have a collaborative relationship with his disciples, for example, because they were clueless acolytes—not a model for GTS faculty.

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  8. The author's lengthy musings, though thoughtful and interesting are founded on, "somebody told me that somebody said...." He does not speak as one of authority for General seminary and this type of speculation in cases like this are rarely helpful.

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  9. Leslie Nipps, the Cafe does not have reporters whom it assigns to cover things. It's an all volunteer organization that stays on top of the news the best it can. We don't claim to be telling the broad story of what is taking place in Episcopal seminaries right now. Anybody who thinks that we are is reading far more into the coverage than we are claiming for it.

    Scott White, reporters never speak as "someone in authority." But it is condescending to say that Andrew's conversations with some of the participants amount to "somebody told me that somebody said."

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  10. I appreciate Andrew taking the time to present a deeper picture of the conflict. The issues that General and other seminaries face seem tailor-made for an adaptive leadership approach, the exercise of leadership described by Ron Heifetz in his books and taught as part of the Clergy Leadership Project from Trinity, Manhattan. The authoritarian "I have the answers" just doesn't work. And of Stakeholders aren't part of crafting the solution, they won't buy into it. It seems that the Dean has left out at least two crucial stakeholders in GTS's new era - the faculty and students. I hope the silence from the BoT does not imply endorsement of such an authoritarian style but a decision to bring the stakeholders into the conversation as quickly as possible.

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  11. Jim, point well taken. However, an article as lengthy as this, with such a clear tone of a clear command of all the issues involved, "the main issue is," "the conflict has nothing to do with," "this is not a disagreement over," "Dean Dunkle believes," all from apparently, "sources tell me," should cause anyone pause. I am simply reminder the reader so.

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  12. Scott, fair enough, to a point. But one can fairly characterize the thoughts of people to whom one has spoken. So we do, I think, know the nature of the faculty's complaint. They've written a statement. Some of them have spoken to Andrew.

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  13. As a former CEO of a Y&R subsidiary and SVP of it's agency, Wunderman, I know a good deal about collaboration and leadership style. As an Episcopalian who lived for many years only a few blocks from GTS and was able to attend Evening Prayer on a regular basis, even as confusing as it could be at times, I know a tiny bit about the seminary. As a parishioner in several parishes that had Rectors who were GTS graduates I know a great deal about what makes a good Rector.

    As an executive in the ad world there was nothing more important than getting buy in from my managers. Nothing. If my managers told me up front--which they were quite willing to do--that they didn't think something I wanted to implement was on course, I either had to persuade them (rarely successful) or change course. I purposely hired people who would challenge me, not in order to measure success by resistance but because I knew my limitations. I was one of the only managers (of about 250) who consistently made my projected margins. I was consistently called bold, decisive, creative. Basically that simply meant I knew how to listen.

    Over the years, my membership in many Episcopal parishes has been under Rectorships of GTS graduates. GTS has, thus, come to represent a stronghold of support, both spiritual and practical, for me, and the current crisis is distressing for me. Dean Dunkle may not understand that his actions affect people he might not have considered. A GTS graduate got my parish through the worst years of AIDS in San Francisco, for instance. We were a parish with average attendance of 100 that in 10 years buried 100 parishioners. Yes, I have proofread the previous sentence. My rector's alma mater played an essential part in our little ship staying afloat in those years. You also have no idea what a comfort it was merely to walk past the walls of the seminary years later on a daily basis.For those of us who see the world as being in a continual state of crisis that survives only through the prayers and mental application of the saints, this crisis is alarming. To have allowed it to get to this state is unthinkable when a leader's leadership style is militaristic; I am one of the rare Episcopalians I know who values the idea of a Church Militant.

    As to early leadership in the church (wow, we really went there), I recently had the good fortune to complete a four-year EfM course. One thing that amazed all of us was to rethink St. Paul. We all went in with the same disgruntled attitude that is popular nowadays, but all came out with admiration for a man whose leadership was astounding and all about getting people on board together. Yes, he was challenging. But he was persuasive as his letters so clearly demonstrate.

    It seems pretty obvious at this point that Dean Dinkle has left the via media to take the high road. People on the high road better have wings.

    Harry Nicholson, né Kelley

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  14. Readers may like to know that members of the 2014 class of GTS are sending a letter to the Board simply asking them to meet with faculty as requested, to treat their - appropriately privately held, if very serious - thoughts and concerns very carefully and seriously, and offering ourselves to Board members as conversation partners with very particular, recent, extensive, and appropriate experience of GTS. All I will add for the moment is that Canon Gerns' piece above resonates strongly with my own experience this past year, and I know first-hand that it does so for several other of my classmates and colleagues. I would urge serious dialogue, exactly as the faculty have repeatedly asked for - apparently - over this past year. Please keep the whole community in your prayers, that - rather than manipulation of the current community, or fear-mongering, or disingenuousness - the truth spoken in love may be the only currency used. Peace, Mark

    The Rev. Mark Genszler


    St. Francis Episcopal Church

    North Bellmore, NY

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  15. After having spent over forty years in academia, I can testify to the fact that top-down college or university (or seminary) government does not and will not work.

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  16. I am a priest who -- like Dale Rains -- has spent 40 years in academia, and I agree wholeheartedly with his comment that top-down governance in an academic setting does not and cannot work.

    The faculty is at the heart of any academic institution. They are the reason anyone would attend the institution in the first place.

    In addition, they have tenure and cannot be fired unless the institution itself goes out of business. At the end of the day, when there is an irreconcilable conflict between the dean and the faculty, the only person the Board can fire is the dean.

    Sounds like they better get about it. Otherwise they are not doing their jobs.

    Why would any bishop send a seminarian to General (or EDS, for that matter), when the dean cannot get along with the faculty?

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  17. As a 1966 graduate, I pray for better leadership that the report would indicate has been going on. I'm particularly concerned about the Chapel and its central role in priestly formation.

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  18. How pertinent these words from the readings at yesterday's Eucharist seem now!

    "Do nothing from selfish ambition or conceit, but in humility regard others as better than yourselves. Let each of you look not to your own interests, but to the interests of others." (Philippians 2:3-4)

    Anyone who fancies him/herself a "Christian leader" who "sets the vision" that others "must follow" -- no discussion necessary -- ought to ponder those words.

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  19. At the spring 1976 GTS Trustees meeting I (the elected president? of the recently resuscitated student government) read a letter suggesting that the Trustees replace the current Dean, for reasons articulated in the letter. Another student, with a dissenting opinion, spoke after me.

    Several years later that Dean did step down, retaining his faculty position.

    The whole process was uncomfortable, of course. (There was some concern that one elderly Trustee bishop might be having a stroke; he didn't.) But it was spacious, civil, maybe even gracious.

    What's different from today? I don't remember how students got on the agenda, but it didn't seem that difficult.

    That was (like now) (sort of) a time of uncertainty, of no assurances. General Convention had not yet approved ordaining women priests. My class started in 1973 with 17 people; it got bigger the next year only because PDS and ETS merged. There was plenty of deepest disagreement.

    But there was the sense that we were all in the dance, and the dance was going on, even if nobody knew the next step. 'We lead, you follow' wasn't working any more. We did try to avoid stepping on each others' toes. (usually)

    Bob Duncan was the Dean's assistant. Well, maybe it didn't work so well in the long run.

    But there was hope in the air, and we all kept breathing. And the long run is still dancing.

    Martha Blacklock

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  20. The notion of what are essentially intern sites at "marginal, struggling and moribund congregations in various states of transition" is faulty. While it is certainly possible for emerging leaders to learn in such crucibles, it would be far more useful to spend "Wisdom" years among the wise, i.e. among rectors and lay leaders who are leading thriving parishes and have discovered key ingredients to effective mission. This situation sounds like a classic "If you're a hammer, everything looks like a nail" story.

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  21. I took some time to more completely read and digest Dean Dunkle's April 2 "The Way of Wisdom -Diving into the Deep End" article in GTS News. In it, he wrote, "I have a theory about wisdom: it is only acquired two ways. First, you must authentically enter real life with all its dangers and have experiences which throw you up against others."

    On a basic level, those two ways are not the only ways to acquire wisdom. One need not be "thrown up against" another to acquire wisdom. Nor is a seminary less constitutive of a "real life" experience than elsewhere.

    As a specialist in congregational transformation, it troubles me that a seminary and a diocese would want to immerse and initiate seminarians in settings that "throw [them] up against others;" and not only that, but that they would bear "the weight of decision-making, make decisions, and then live with the consequences." With the possible exception of second-career candidates with significant leadership backgrounds, this is no way to form new priests/pastors, nor is it a way to assist struggling parishes. Those parishes need deft, experienced touches, and so do those priests-in-the-making. Otherwise, as I alluded to in a previous post, the ECUSA will train up a generation of priests who are hammers who view all problems as nails. It would be far better for newly-or-about-to-be-ordained leaders to experience training settings characterized by team-based leadership, servant leadership, and strong mentoring.

    I'm concerned that Dean Dunkle views seminary as "only provid[ing] a wading pool; real life in a parish or ministry is the deep end!" Seminary, seminary faculty, fluid populations of students all gathered for the intention of formation and preparation to serve God's people - that's the deep end, too. Read Bonhoeffer's "Life Together," for a glimpse of that deep end. How disrespectful to devoted teaching theologians and scholars to frame their context as "not real life," and the shallow end. No wonder there is a rift.

    The notion of "The Way of Wisdom" requiring a "complete blending" of education, formation, and experience into each other as a kind of "habitus" strikes me as at least a little a naive. It is a nice idea but difficult (nearly impossible) to effectively integrate field experiences with academic reflection or any kind of praxis model when the components are so utterly linear and separated by time and distance. To succeed, the components must be concurrent. They must develop in a true "habitus" where the [i]daily[/i] practices, habits and experiences of the community lean into each other, in proximity, in real time. Nor is it reasonable to expect that respected and capable professors will necessarily be experienced or skilled at integrating such field learning and experience with other curricula. Some may. But their leadership contexts and life contexts are often essentially different - not less than, nor shallower, but different.

    How sad that the very seminarians who are to be more fully prepared through the Dean's initiatives are instead learning that the very ones who purport to know what's best for them can't sit and figure it out together. A discerning student might deduce, "The results of the Dean's methods are not ones I would choose to want." Were I responsible in any kind of executive way for the overall health and effectiveness of an institution with such a struggle, it would certainly cause me to look twice at all involved.

    Rev. Bruce A. Cole

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