Support the Café

Search our Site

Last print version of the Book of Common Prayer

Last print version of the Book of Common Prayer

by George Clifford

Part 1

The 1979 Book of Common Prayer is the last printed version of the prayer book that The Episcopal Church (TEC) will ever publish. Three rationales support that prognostication. First, a growing majority of TEC congregations struggle financially. They often lack the funds to meet their current expenses, much less purchase new prayer books. Second, e-books are rapidly overtaking traditional printed books in popularity. Some Episcopalians already participate in worship by following the service on a tablet, smartphone, or other electronic device instead of printed books or a leaflet. Third, TEC is so theologically, liturgically, and linguistically diverse that developing sufficient support for any prayer book revision seems problematic. Instead, the number and variety of liturgies authorized for trial will almost certainly continue to proliferate.

Lamenting or applauding the shift from printed to electronic media is unproductive. The change is occurring both rapidly and irreversibly. However, the increasing reliance on electronic versions of the liturgy represents a troubling and growing challenge to TEC’s identity as a church united by common prayer rather than common belief. Unlike printed prayer books, altering an electronic version of the liturgy to suit local needs, preferences, or theology is very easy, costs little or nothing, and already happens. Furthermore, this ongoing move toward multiple liturgical forms, some locally adapted, even when authorized by proper ecclesiastical authority, is a centrifugal force pulling TEC away from its historic connectional ethos toward a congregational ethos.

Many Episcopalians value, as do I, our tradition of unity rooted in common prayer rather than common belief. Is the demise of common prayer inevitable? If not, how do we preserve common prayer with the shift toward electronic versions of our liturgy and our growing congregational ethos? Perhaps more basically, how do we maintain our unity in view of these changes?

In 2012, the 77th General Convention established a Task Force for Reimagining the Episcopal Church (TREC) to “create a plan for reforming the Church’s structures, governance, and administration.” If tinkering at the margins or making other simple fixes to reform structures, governance, and administration could reinvigorate the denomination, then TEC (or another of the many denominations experiencing similar declines in attendance, participation, and giving) would probably have already taken those steps.

TEC needs a radical makeover, not incremental reform. Radically reimagining TEC –holding on to the essentials of our identity, letting go of anachronistic non-essentials, and embracing new forms and styles appropriate for the early twenty-first century – has the potential to reinvent and reinvigorate TEC while also charting a path toward preserving unity rooted in common prayer.

TREC, at their July 2013 meeting, enumerated five key themes for restructuring (their report is available here):


Incarnational view of human life

The arts, liturgy, and mystery

Continuity and change

Social engagement and prophetic dissent

Those themes represent a good description of who Episcopalians have been and want to be. However, those themes afford no assurance that TREC’s reimagining of the Church will lead to the substantial changes TEC needs if it is to reinvent and reinvigorate itself (with God’s help, we pray!) as a twenty-first century missional force.

The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1886 and 1888 emphasized the importance of Church unity and outlined the terms on which Anglicans seek unity. The Quadrilateral includes two principles essential for a radical reimagining of The Episcopal Church:

That in all things of human ordering or human choice, relating to modes of worship and discipline, or to traditional customs, this Church is ready in the spirit of love and humility to forego all preferences of her own…


The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the unity of His Church.

In other words, TEC insists on retaining the historic episcopate but in most other matters recognizes that neither Scripture nor tradition provides a timeless, authoritative pattern of ecclesial structure or governance. Thus, the options for reimagining TEC are numerous and have few inherent limits. Perhaps the greatest barriers to radically reimagining TEC are entrenched groups and individuals who enjoy their privileged positions and powers under the status quo and our own blinders with respect to what may be possible.

Historic patterns of ecclesiastical organization have ranged from unstructured collegiality to authoritarian and from almost complete reliance on individual initiative to corporate clericalism. What pattern and style of organization best suits TEC’s liturgical and theological emphases in ways that accommodate or, better yet, utilize social changes over which we have no control (e.g., electronic communication and heightened individualism) to promote the community, ministry, and mission of God’s people in and through TEC?

In the second part of this essay, I suggest two proposals for a radical makeover, offering them as conversation starters intended to stretch our thinking about what is possible and not as definitive ukases.

George Clifford is an ethicist and Priest Associate at the Church of the Nativity, Raleigh, NC. He retired from the Navy after serving as a chaplain for twenty-four years, has written Charting a Theological Confluence: Theology and Interfaith Relations and Forging Swords into Plows: A Twenty-First Century Christian Perspective on War, and blogs at Ethical Musings.


Café Comments?

Our comment policy requires that you use your real first and last names and provide an email address (your email will not be published). Comments that use non-PG rated language, include personal attacks, that are not provable as fact or that we deem in any way to be counter to our mission of fostering respectful dialogue will not be posted.

Oldest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Marc Kivel

Lately I’ve come up with the following two part test when folks propose doing away with printed texts in worship:

In the event of a disaster in your locale with limited or no electric power for an unknown period, with or without available clergy, how useful are e-texts in providing spiritual comfort to victims? Second, what prevents e-texts from being modified and presented as original texts?

My thought is plan and practice for the worst and be thankful to God when it doesn’t occur.

A printed pocket sized BCP, a Bible, and a Hymnal in every Episcopalian home with a guide to their daily use might be something worthy of a discussion….


“New Zealand has their own BCP, so should the USA.”

If I’m reading the Canons of Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia correctly, that BCP would be… the 1662 edition, with certain modifications. They very deliberately did not give A New Zealand Prayer Book the title, the Book of Common Prayer.

Bill Dilworth


We should republish the BCP to bring it into the 21th Century with all the Convention approved Episcopalian liturgies, et al. That could be our “last” bound volume, rather than 3/4 into the 20th Century. New Zealand has their own BCP, so should the USA.

We should have a bound book to establish our beliefs and to serve as a guide and tool for believers. Our Book of Common Prayer distinguishes us from less liturgical Christian denominations and reflects our identity.

Long live the BCP.

(my church publishes bulletins each Sunday, a “supplement” for the Liturgy of the Word, and bulletin for the Liturgy of the Sacrament that lasts for a season, or at least a month. The Supplement includes references to songs in the hymnal.)

[Stina – please sign your name when you comment – thanks — editor]


I think that the Roman Catholics do a good job with seasonal “missalettes”. That could easily be the answer. I also think that Adam Spencer’s parish is another alternative. We just need to think outside the box – neither latest cultural fad, nor traditional objects. By doing so we may well decided on either of those. The thought of going digital and using my cell phone or other technology just does not appeal to me at all.

All that being said, I believe we need to maintain a uniform liturgy and however a local community decides to share that in writing is up to them. I live in Louisiana. There are several small churches in rural areas who prefer the prayer book. I have been to New Orleans and seen a variety of printed materials (song books, etc.) being used. It is the liturgy and not the dissemination of the wording that matters most to me.

[D — please sign your first and last name next time you post. thanks, editor]

Adam Spencer

Our current parish seems to print seasonal bulletins which contain an entire Sunday Eucharistic liturgy which is “set” for that season with weekly inserts for readings and non-hymnal hymns. They then re-use the bulletins every week. I rather like having a set of familiar prayers and “mass parts” for a whole liturgical season or portion of the year. This sort of thing allows familiarity for members and accessibility for newcomers. Why we should feel we need to change the entire liturgy every week is beyond me…

Support the Café
Past Posts

The Episcopal Café seeks to be an independent voice, reporting and reflecting on the Episcopal Church and the Anglican tradition.  The Café is not a platform of advocacy, but it does aim to tell the story of the church from the perspective of Progressive Christianity.  Our collective sympathy, as the Café, lies with the project of widening the circle of inclusion within the church and empowering all the baptized for the role to which they have been called as followers of Christ.

The opinions expressed at the Café are those of individual contributors, and, unless otherwise noted, should not be interpreted as official statements of a parish, diocese or other organization. The art and articles that appear here remain the property of their creators.

All Content  © 2017 Episcopal Café